Core Technology

Three Core Technologies

「ReadCrystal」 has three structural analysis technology platforms: MicroED, CryoEM-SPA and XRD.
We provide advanced structural analysis testing services and solutions for our drug discovery customers.
·· Nanocrystals
· Short incubation period for single crystals
· Mixed phase
· Protein does not need to be crystallized
· Determination of protein structure in close proximity to physiological environment
· Ultra low sample consumption
· Single crystal X-ray diffraction SCXRD
· Powder X-ray diffraction PXRD
· Synchrotron radiation/liquid metal target


       The MicroED technique (microcrystalline electron diffraction) is similar in principle to X-ray diffraction, except that the incident beam is a high-energy electron, which interacts more strongly with the crystal. As a result, only a small number of micro- and nanoscale crystals are required to obtain high-resolution diffraction data quickly and efficiently, drastically reducing the requirements for sample shape, purity and size.
       MicroED is considered to be a disruptive tool at the bottom of chemistry, synthesis, and biology, and was selected as one of the top 10 global technological breakthroughs in Science 2018.
     "The founding team of 「ReadCrystal」 is from the MicroED technology invention group at Stockholm University, Sweden. The company has built its own international leading and only high-throughput MicroED test platform, providing professional and efficient MicroED commercialization testing services.

Technical Features

    Nanocrystals, powder crystals, needle crystals      
    Low difficulty process of single crystal culture  
    High resolution, generally 2.5 Å for biological macromolecules, <1.0 Å for small molecules  
    All structures in mixed-phase samples can be resolved independently

Testing Process



       Cryo-EM SPA (Cryo-Electron Microscopy Single Particle Method) is an electron microscopy technique. This technique freezes aqueous protein samples directly and quickly (without crystallization), image acquisition by transmission electron microscopy, and finally 3D reconstruction of thousands of collected images to obtain near-atomic resolution structural data of the target protein.
     「ReadCrystal」 has its own input freezing robot Vitrobot and 200KV cryo-transmission electron microscope required for initial sample screening, providing customers with rapid sample evaluation feedback. In addition, we have in-depth cooperation with many well-known institutions in China, providing sufficient commercial hours of 300KV cryo-electron microscopy.

Technical Features

     No need for crystallization, samples are frozen and tested directly on the machine  
     Close to the natural state of analysis, the sample is in frozen water, similar to the environment of the organism  
     Very low sample volume consumption, 0.1g protein sample

Testing process


X-ray Diffraction

       X-ray diffraction technique, as the most traditional technique for structure analysis, is a mature and low-cost method. According to the Bragg diffraction principle, when X-rays are incident on a crystal, they cause the electrons and nuclei in the atoms to vibrate. Since the nuclei have a large mass to vibrate negligibly, the vibrating electrons are the wave source of secondary X-rays with the same wavelength and circumferential phase as the incident light. Due to the periodicity of the crystal structure, the scattered waves of each electron in the crystal interfere with each other and superimpose, which is called diffraction. X-ray diffraction technology can be divided into "powder X-ray diffraction" and "single crystal X-ray diffraction".

SCXRD single crystal X-ray diffraction

      Single crystal X-ray diffraction is the most commonly used experimental method to determine the crystal structure and to analyze the spatial structure of the atoms inside the molecules of a substance. However, it is often limited by the size of single crystals and often requires a difficult large crystal incubation process to obtain large single crystal samples that meet the test requirements.
     The "synchrotron" or "liquid metal target" can provide a high brightness X-ray source several to tens of times more powerful than conventional indoor sources, and the crystal size can be reduced by 1/10 of the conventional requirement. diffractometers to provide customers with timely commercial testing services.

Technical Features

   Conventional In-house Diffractometer / Liquid Metal Target Diffractometer / Synchrotron Radiation  
   Synchrotron radiation can resolve crystals as small as 10µm in size  
   We has sufficient synchrotron commercial hour

Testing Process


PXRD powder X-ray diffraction

    Since it is difficult for substances to form relatively large single crystal particles, powder X-ray diffraction is the mainstream X-ray diffraction analysis technology. Powder diffraction can analyze the composition of physical phase and quantitative analysis, and also analyze the crystal structure, but complex structures such as large molecules are generally difficult to analyze.
   Since ReadCrystal has PXRD equipment, international authoritative crystallography experts can combine MicroED and PXRD refinement technology to develop leading international methods for quantitative analysis of physical phases and crystal structure analysis.

Technical Features

   Highest accuracy in quantitative analysis, with powder refinement and quantitative analysis by international authoritative crystallographers (accuracy up to 0.5%)       
  Powder inversion of crystal structure, combining MicroED and powder refinement techniques to perform crystal structure analysis